HACCP Questions and Answers
What is HACCP?
HACCP, or the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system, is a process
control system that identifies where hazards might occur in the food production
process and puts into place stringent actions to take to prevent the hazards
from occurring. By strictly monitoring and controlling each step of the
process, there is less chance for hazards to occur.
Why is HACCP Important?
HACCP is important because it prioritizes and controls potential hazards
in food production. By controlling major food risks, such as microbiological,
chemical and physical contaminants, the industry can better assure consumers
that its products are as safe as good science and technology allows. By
reducing foodborne hazards, public health protection is strengthened.
What are the Major Food Hazards?
While many public opinion studies report that consumers are concerned primarily
about chemical residues, such as from pesticides and antibiotics, these
hazards are nearly non-existent. The more significant hazards facing the
food industry today are microbiological contaminants, such as Salmonella,
E. coli O157:H7, Listeria, Campylobacter, and Clostridium
botulinum. HACCP is designed to focus on and control the most significant
Is HACCP New?
HACCP is not new. It was first used in the 1960s by the Pillsbury Company
to produce the safest and highest quality food possible for astronauts in
the space program. The National Academy of Sciences, National Advisory
Committee for Mcirobiological Criteria for Foods, and the Codex Alimentarius
have endorsed HACCP as the best process control system available today.
How Does HACCP Compare to the Current Food Production and Inspection
The current food inspection program is based on a "see, smell and touch"
approach that relies more on detection of potential hazards than prevention.
Furthermore, the current inspection program was designed in the 1930s when
the threat of diseased animals and physical contaminants were the main concerns.
Today, microbiological and chemical contamination, which cannot be seen,
are of greater interest. The U.S. Department of Agriculture recently mandated
HACCP for the nation's 7,000 meat and poultry plants.
What is the Status of the Adoption of HACCP Within the Meat and Poultry
Many of the nation's meat and poultry processing facilities have implemented
some or all of the HACCP principles into their operations. Many companies
have also provided HACCP training to management and in-plant workforce.
What is USDA's Pathogen Reduction/HACCP Regulation?
USDA is pursuing a farm to table approach to food safety by taking steps
to improve the safety of meat and poultry at each step in the food production,
processing, distribution and marketing chain. On July 25, 1996, USDA released
its Pathogen Reduction/HACCP final rule. The final rule will further target
pathogens that cause foodborne illness, strengthen industry responsibility
to produce safe food, and focus inspection and plant activities on prevention
objectives. The final rule covers three major areas:
Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system
How Does HACCP Work in Food Production?
There are seven principles, developed by the National Advisory Committee
on Microbiological Criteria for Foods, that serve as the foundation for
a HACCP system. They are:
1. Conduct a hazard analysis to identify potential hazards that could
occur in the food production process.
2. Identify the critical control points (CCPs) -- those points in
the process where the potential hazards could occur and can be prevented
3. Establish critical limits for preventive measures associated with
each CCP. A critical limit is a criterion that must be met for each CCP.
Where appropriate, critical limits may reflect relevant FSIS regulations
and FDA tolerances.
4. Establish CCP monitoring requirements to ensure each CCP stays
within its limit. Monitoring may require materials or devices to measure
or otherwise evaluate the process at CCPs.
5. Establish corrective actions if monitoring determines a CCP is
not within the established limits. In case a problem occurs, corrective
actions must be in place to ensure no public health hazard occurs.
6. Establish effective recordkeeping procedures that document the
HACCP system is working properly. Records should document CCP monitoring,
verification activities and deviation records.
7. Establish procedures for verifying that the HACCP system is working
properly. Verification procedures may include reviewing the HACCP plan,
CCP records, critical limits as well as conducting microbial sampling.
Both plant personnel and FSIS inspectors will conduct verification activities.
What Role Does Microbiological Testing Play in HACCP Programs?
Microbiological testing can play a valuable role in HACCP programs as a
means for verifying the HACCP system is working properly and to track trends
and profiles of products. By tracking microbiological data, plants can
identify when the production process is not being properly controlled or
verify that prevention efforts are successfully reducing bacterial levels.
End-product microbiological testing, however, is less effective. There
is not sufficient data to determine what is considered an "acceptable"
level of bacteria on raw meat and poultry, so an end-product test will not
provide useful data, other than for trends analysis. While end-product
testing may indicate bacteria are present, it does not solve the problem
of identifying and eliminating contamination.
What Role Do Other New Technologies Play in HACCP?
New technologies will play critical roles in HACCP programs since HACCP
is designed to institute practices that reduce or eliminate harmful contamination.
If new technologies are developed that prevent or eliminate hazards throughout
the production process, they will be widely accepted and adopted. The industry
has studied several new technologies and petitioned USDA to approve them
Are There Established HACCP Guidelines and Plans for the Food Industry
There are seven HACCP principles that must be followed to implement HACCP.
Every food production process in a plant will need an individual HACCP
plan that directly impacts the specifics of the product and process. Government
and industry groups are developing some generic HACCP models that provide
guidelines and directions for developing plant-, process- and product-specific
HACCP systems. The International Meat and Poultry HACCP Alliance has developed
training curriculum to assist the meat and poultry industry.
How Would HACCP Be Applied From Farm to Table?
For the most successful implementation of HACCP, it should be applied from
farm to table -- starting on the farm and ending with the individual preparing
the food, whether in a restaurant or home. On the farm, there are actions
that can be taken to prevent contamination from occurring, such as monitoring
feed, maintaining farm sanitation, and practicing good animal health management
In the plant, contamination must be prevented during slaughter and processing.
Once meat and poultry products leave the plant, there should be controls
in place during transportation, storage and distribution.
In retail stores, proper sanitation, refrigeration, storage and handling
practices will prevent contamination. Finally, in restaurants, food service
and homes, food handlers must store, handle and cook foods properly to ensure
How Can HACCP Be Applied in Distribution and Retail?
FSIS plans to work with the Food and Drug Administration and state and local
governments to begin to implement HACCP in the distribution and retail sectors.
FSIS intends to work with FDA to develop federal standards for safe handling
of food during transportation, distribution and storage prior to delivery
to retail stores. Also, FSIS will work with FDA to provide food safety
guidance to retail stores through the updated Food Code. The Food Code
is a model ordinance intended to serve as a guide for state and local authorities.
Following proper sanitation and handling guidelines will help ensure that
further contamination and cross contamination do not occur.
How Can Consumers Use HACCP?
Consumers can implement HACCP-like practices in the home by following proper
storage, handling, cooking and cleaning procedures. From the time a consumer
purchases meat or poultry from the grocery store to the time they cook and
serve a meal, there are many steps to take to ensure food safety. Examples
include properly refrigerating meat and poultry, keeping raw meat and poultry
separate form cooked and ready-to-eat foods, thoroughly cooking meat and
poultry, and refrigerating and cooking leftovers to prevent bacterial growth.